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34 star American national flag, entirely hand-sewn and made of cotton. The stars are roughly arranged in seven staggered rows of 6-4-6-3-6-4-6. This is a particularly large number of rows for such a low star count, but it is far from the flag's most intriguing feature. More significant is the configuration which they create, in which the Southern Cross is embedded. Note how it can be drawn from an elongated hexagon of 6 stars in the center, from which double, parallel rows of 3 and 4 stars veer off diagonally toward each corner of the canton.

I have handled many Stars & Stripes variant flags that I feel were made, at least in part, to subtly display sympathies for the Southern cause. Some have star counts that relate to the number of Confederate States, or to the number of Slave States, and others have stripe counts that send a similar message, particularly with either 7 or 11 stripes to reflect the total number of states that officially left the Union during the initial wave of secession, or the total that had officially seceded soon thereafter, but others have patterns embedded within the configuration of the stars. It has been suggested that features may have been used to marked a safe house for Confederate spies, or a place of business where Southerners could find preferential treatment of some kind.

The unusual thing about this particular flag is that it also could be interpreted as displaying the Crosses of St. Andrew and St. George, due to the 2 flanking stars on the top, bottom, fore and aft of the "Southern Cross". If this is the case, British glorification might be the message behind the configuration instead of Confederate sympathies. Though the aid of Queen Victoria was sought by both governments, I think a British message is unlikely. Instead, I would suggest that the Cross of St. George may have been included on purpose, not to pay homage to the British Crown, but rather to confuse any person who might question the flag's Southern symbolism. This might seem to be more of a stretch of the imagination if I had not seen other Stars & Stripes flags with Southern sympathies, accompanied by the same exact type of intentionally misleading feature.

Whatever pattern its maker intended, it can be suggested with confidence that hidden meanings were sewn into numerous Civil War period Stars & Stripes, and this one can be included among them. It can also be said that the flags in question often gained extraordinary graphic qualities from it, and that this one is no exception. In addition to the modern art-type qualities that result from the placement of the stars, other factors contribute to its striking visual appearance. Note how the fat, starfish-like shape of the stars varies greatly from one to the next, and how they point in various directions on their vertical axes. Also note how they are arranged on a canton that is not only unusual in color, but is made of glazed cotton that has a beautiful, lustrous sheen. Glazed fabric is very desirable in early American textiles, but it isn't often seen in early flag-making. In addition to the stunning presentation found in the accumulation of these features, they lend precisely the kind of hand-made charm that attracts flag collectors and connoisseurs of Americana to early examples of the Stars & Stripes.

Kansas was admitted into the Union as the 34th state on January 29th, 1861, about two-and-a-half months before the Confederate assault on Fort Sumter that marked the beginning of the Civil War. The 34th star was officially added on July 4th of that year, but most flag makers would have added a 34th star with the addition of Kansas in January. The star count remained official until July 4th, 1863, and 34 star flags would have generally been produced until the addition of West Virginia in June of that year.

Construction: The stripes and canton are hand-sewn and made of cotton. The stars are double-appliqu'd, meaning that they are sewn to both sides. Cotton was a poor fabric for outdoor signals, as it absorbs water. It was, however, the fabric of choice for homemade flags, because it was cheap and widely available.
Inventory Number: 34j-899


Jeff R. Bridgman American Antiques, llc
Contact   Jeff Bridgman Phone: (717) 502-1281
Period: 19th Century (1801-1900)
Date: 1861-1863
Condition: See Item Description
Measurements: Frame: 61" x 79.5" Flag: 48.75" x 68.5"
Inventory Other Inventory by this Dealer
Price: Please Call
E-mail: Inquire
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